Developing a passive tendency to addiction model based on mental toughness, helicopter parenting, and personal intelligence

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran


Students are one of the most important and vital assets in any country, yet nowadays they are having an increasingly stronger tendency to addiction. The aim of this study was to develop a model of addiction tendency based on helicopter parenting and personal intelligence with the mediating variable of mental toughness. The research method was descriptive-correlational using structural equation modeling. The population of the study consisted of students at Bonab and Maragheh universities of medical sciences in 2021. 285 participants were selected through the convenience sampling method. The instruments included the Luebbe et al.’s (2018) Helicopter Parenting Questionnaire, Mayer et al.’s (2013) Personal Intelligence Questionnaire, Clough, Earle, and Sewell’s (2002) Mental Toughness Questionnaire, and Weed and Butcher’s (1992) Addiction Tendency Questionnaire. The structural equation modeling method and the SPSS and AMOS software were used for data analysis. The results showed that the helicopter parenting style and mental toughness both play a role in explaining the model of students' passive tendency to addiction. Finally, 57% of the variance of passive tendency to addiction and 7% of the variance of mental toughness were explained by model variables. According to the results, it is suggested that helicopter parenting, mental toughness, and personal intelligence be considered in interventions related to reducing the tendency to addiction.


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